Pandangan Gereja Perdana mengenai KePausan
Sri Paus adalah Uskup Roma. Pemahaman Gereja Katolik tentang hal ini tidak hanya berdasarkan Kitab Suci saja (lihat Tentang KePausan) tetapi juga berdasarkan Tradisi Apostolik yang kesaksiannya dapat kita lihat dari Bapa-Bapa Gereja Perdana dan beberapa hasil Konsili.
Bapa-Bapa Gereja Perdana memberikan kesaksian bahwa mereka Percaya bahwa Petrus adalah batu karang yang dimaksud oleh Tuhan Yesus dalam Mat 16:18 (lihat Tentang KePausan) dan juga Petrus sebagai Kepala Para Rasul. Berikut kesaksian Bapa Gereja Timur mengenai hal ini:
- Origenes: See what is said by the Lord to [Peter], that great foundation of the Church, and most solid rock, upon which Christ founded the Church (Alnatt 15,16)
- St. Antoni dari Mesir: Peter, the Prince of the Apostles (Anthony, Epist. xvii. Galland, iv p. 687).
- St. Anthanasius: The Chief, Peter. (Athan, In Ps. xv. 8, tom. iii. p. 106, Migne)
- St. Yohanes Krisostomos: Peter himself the Head or Crown of the Apostles, the First in the Church, the Friend of Christ, who received a revelation, not from man, but from the Father, as the Lord bears witness to him, saying, 'Blessed art thou, &c.' This very Peter and when I name Peter I name that unbroken Rock, that firm Foundation, the Great Apostle, First of the disciples, the First called, and the First who obeyed he was guilty ...even denying the Lord. (Chrysostom, T. ii. Hom).
Peter, the Leader of the choir of Apostles, the Mouth of the disciples, the Pillar of the Church, the Buttress of the faith, the Foundation of the confession, the Fisherman of the universe. (Chrysostom, T. iii Hom).
Peter, that Leader of the choir, that Mouth of the rest of the Apostles, that Head of the brotherhood, that one set over the entire universe, that Foundation of the Church. (Chrys. In illud hoc Scitote).
(Peter), the foundation of the Church, the Coryphaeus of the choir of the Apostles, the vehement lover of Christ ...he who ran throughout the whole world, who fished the whole world; this holy Coryphaeus of the blessed choir; the ardent disciple, who was entrusted with the keys of heaven, who received the spiritual revelation. Peter, the mouth of all Apostles, the head of that company, the ruler of the whole world. (De Eleemos, iii. 4; Hom. de decem mille tal. 3).
In those days Peter rose up in the midst of the disciples (Acts 15), both as being ardent, and as intrusted by Christ with the flock ...he first acts with authority in the matter, as having all put into his hands ; for to him Christ said, 'And thou, being converted, confirm thy brethren. (Chrysostom, Hom. iii Act Apost. tom. ix.).
He passed over his fall, and appointed him first of the Apostles; wherefore He said: ' 'Simon, Simon,' etc. (in Ps. cxxix. 2). God allowed him to fall, because He meant to make him ruler over the whole world, that, remembering his own fall, he might forgive those who should slip in the future. And that what I have said is no guess, listen to Christ Himself saying: 'Simon, Simon, etc.' (Chrys, Hom. quod frequenter conveniendum sit 5, cf. Hom 73 in Joan 5).
And why, then, passing by the others, does He converse with Peter on these things? (John 21:15). He was the chosen one of the Apostles, and the mouth of the disciples, and the leader of the choir. On this account, Paul also went up on a time to see him rather than the others (Galatians 1:18). And withal, to show him that he must thenceforward have confidence, as the denial was done away with, He puts into his hands the presidency over the brethren. And He brings not forward the denial, nor reproches him with what had past, but says, 'If you love me, preside over the brethren, ...and the third time He gives him the same injunction, showing what a price He sets the presidency over His own sheep. And if one should say, 'How then did James receive the throne of Jerusalem?,' this I would answer that He appointed this man (Peter) teacher, not of that throne, but of the whole world. (Chrysostom, In Joan. Hom. 1xxxviii. n. 1, tom. viii).
[H]e [Peter] became a foundation of the Church (Homily 3 on Matthew, NPNF1 X:19).
[T]o exhibit a man that is a fisher more solid than any rock, while all the world is at war with him...(Homily 54 on Matthew, NPNF1 X:334).
Peter, that the head of the Apostles, the first in the Church, the friend of Christ, who received the revelation not from man but from the Father ... this Peter, and when I say Peter, I mean the unbroken rock, the unshaken foundation, the great apostle, the first of the disciples, the first called, the first to obey (Almsgiving 3:4, Chapman 74).
selain itu Yohanes Krisostomos banyak memberikan gelar kepada Petrus seperti: 'the first of the apostles', 'the foundation of the Church', 'the leader of the choir of the apostles', 'the base', 'the pillar', 'the head of the apostles', 'the first in the Church', 'the foundation of the faith', 'the fisherman of the world', 'the unshaken foundation', 'the great apostle', 'the first of the disciples', 'the mouth of the disciples', dan 'the unbroken Rock'
Sejarah Gereja menyatakan bahwa Suksesor Petrus tidak hanya di Roma saja tetapi juga di Antiokhia, Karena sebelum menjabat Uskup di Roma, Petrus adalah Uskup di Antiokhia. Kita percaya bahwa Petrus adalah Kepala Para rasul dan saat Petrus meninggalkan Antiokhia, Petrus belum melepaskan jabatannya sebagai Kepala Para Rasul (Pemimpin Gereja Universal) meskipun ia mentahbiskan penggantinya di Keuskupan Antiokhia. Di kota Romalah baru ada Suksesi Apostolik kepemimpinan universal Gereja dari Petrus kepada Linus dan ke suksesor selanjutnya. nah dari hal inilah kita percaya bahwa Uskup Roma sebagai pengganti Petrus memiliki Supremasi atas para uskup dan Patriakh sebagai pengganti Para Rasul seperti halnya Petrus memiliki Supremasi terhadap Para rasul.
Sebagai Contoh kita bisa lihat hal-hal berikut:
- di Gereja di Korintus, Ketika Paus Klements I diminta mengurus masalah dispute tahta keuskupan korintus padahal kan bisa saja otoritas gereja disana meminta bantuan pada Rasul Yohanes, Para Patriakh terdekat seperti Yerusalem atau Antiokhia atau mungkin Konstantinopel atau Alexandria :-) "Owing to the sudden and repeated calamities and misfortunes which have befallen us, we must acknowledge that we have been somewhat tardy in turning our attention to the matters in dispute among you, beloved, and especially that abominable and unholy sedition, alien and foreign to the elect of God, which a few rash and self-willed persons have inflamed." "Accept our counsel and you will have nothing to regret. . . . If anyone disobey the things which have been said by him [God] through us [i.e., that you must reinstate your leaders], let them know that they will involve themselves in transgression and in no small danger." "You will afford us joy and gladness if being obedient to the things which we have written through the Holy Spirit, you will root out the wicked passion of jealousy" (Letter to the Corinthians 1:1, 58:2-59:1, 63:2 [A.D. 80]).
- Konsili di Sardica juga menyatakan hal yang mirip dengan ini "[I]f any bishop loses the judgment in some case [decided by his fellow bishops] and still believes that he has not a bad but a good case, in order that the case may be judged anew . . . let us honor the memory of the Apostle Peter by having those who have given the judgment write to Julius, Bishop of Rome, so that if it seem proper he may himself send arbiters and the judgment may be made again by the bishops of a neighboring province" (canon 3 [A.D. 342]). "[I]f some bishop be deposed by the judgment of the bishops sitting in the neighborhood, and if he declare that he will seek further redress, another should not be appointed to his see until the Bishop of Rome can be acquainted with the case and render a judgment" (canon 4)
- Pada Buku yang menjawab Skisma Donatis sangat jelas ditekankan Supremasi Tahta di Roma: "In the city of Rome the episcopal chair was given first to Peter, the chair in which Peter sat, the same who was head--that is why he is also called Cephas ["Rock"]--of all the apostles, the one chair in which unity is maintained by all. Neither do the apostles proceed individually on their own, and anyone who would [presume to] set up another chair in opposition to that single chair would, by that very fact, be a schismatic and a sinner. . . . Recall, then, the origins of your chair, those of you who wish to claim for yourselves the title of holy Church" (The Schism of the Donatists 2:2 [A.D. 367]).
- St. Hieronimus menekankan hal yang sama: "I follow no leader but Christ and join in communion with none but your blessedness [Pope Damasus I], that is, with the chair of Peter. I know that this is the rock on which the Church has been built. Whoever eats the Lamb outside this house is profane. Anyone who is not in the ark on Noah will perish when the flood prevails" (Letters 15:2 [A.D. 396] St. Hieronimus).
- Lalu pada Konsili Kalsedon tahun 451: "Bishop Paschasinus, guardian of the Apostolic See, stood in the midst [of the Council Fathers] and said, 'We received directions at the hands of the most blessed and apostolic bishop of the Roman city [Pope Leo I], who is the head of all the churches, which directions say that Dioscorus is not to be allowed to sit in the [present] assembly, but that if he should attempt to take his seat, he is to be cast out. This instruction we must carry out" (Acts of the Council, session 1 [A.D. 451]). "After the reading of the foregoing epistle [The Tome of Leo], the most reverend bishops cried out: 'This is the faith of the fathers! this is the faith of the Apostles! So we all believe! thus the orthodox believe! Anathema to him who does not thus believe! Peter has spoken thus through Leo!'" (ibid., session 2).
Mengapa Petrus dan Paulus (Para Sokoguru jemaat) ingin ke Roma?? karena itu adalah kehendak Yesus sendiri "Tetapi kamu akan menerima kuasa, kalau Roh Kudus turun ke atas kamu, dan kamu akan menjadi saksi-Ku di Yerusalem dan di seluruh Yudea dan Samaria dan sampai ke ujung bumi." (Kis 1:8)..... ujung bumi menurut pemahaman orang dahulu (Para Penulis Injil) adalah Roma karena saat itu Roma adalam pusat empire romawi dan jika injil bisa sampai ke ujung bumi (Roma). maka niscaya agama Kristen akan mudah mencapai tempat-2 lain di seluruh dunia (pandangan penulis kala itu) dan mungkin inilah yang memicu mulai retaknya Gereja karena kekaisaran dibagi dua sehingga ada 2 kota Roma [yaitu Roma (old Rome) dan Konstantinopel (New Rome)] tetapi apapun yang terjadi konsili konstantiopel I menegaskan bahwa Roma adalah Tahta I "The bishop of Constantinople shall have the primacy of honor after the bishop of Rome, because his city is New Rome" (canon 3 [A.D. 381]).
terima kasih kepada yang sudah turut membantu mengkoreksi artikel ini:
Romo H.Pidyarto, O.Carm